Banking Companies - Its Forms and Business Engagement & Licensing
According to Sec. 5 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, a banking company means the accepting, for the purpose of lending or investment, of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise and withdrawn by Cheque, Draft, Order, or otherwise.
Any company which is engaged in the manufacture of goods or carries on any trade and which accepts the deposits of money from public merely for the purpose of financing its business as such manufacturer or trader shall not be deemed to transact the business of banking within the meaning of this clause.
Form and business in which banking companies may engage
(a) the borrowing, raising, or taking up of money; the lending or advancing of money either upon or without security; and drawing, making, accepting, discounting, buying, selling, collecting and dealing in bills of exchange, hundies, promissory notes, coupons, drafts, bill of lading, railway receipts, warrants, debentures, certificates, scrips and other instruments, and securities whether transferable or negotiable or not; the granting and issuing of letters of credit, travelers' cheques and circular notes; the buying, selling and dealing in bullion and specie; the buying and selling of foreign exchange including foreign bank notes; the acquiring, holding, issuing on commission, underwriting and dealing in stock, funds, shares, debentures, debenture stock, bonds, obligations, securities and investments of all kinds; the purchasing and selling of bonds, scrips or other forms of securities on behalf of constituents or others; the negotiating of loan and advances; the receiving of all kinds of bonds, scrips or valuables on deposit or for safe custody or otherwise; the providing of safe deposit vaults; the collecting and transmitting of money and securities;
(b) acting as agents for any government or local authority or any other person or persons; the carrying on of agency business of any description including the clearing and forwarding of goods, giving of receipts and discharges and otherwise acting as an attorney on behalf of customers, but excluding the business of a 30[Managing Agent or Secretary and Treasurer] of a company;
(c) contracting for public and private loans and negotiating and issuing the same;
(d) the effecting, insuring, guaranteeing, underwriting, participating in managing and carrying out of any issue, public or private, of State, municipal or other loans or of shares, stock, debentures or debenture stock of any company, corporation or association and the lending of money for the purpose of any such issue;
(e) carrying on and transacting every kind of guarantee and indemnity business;
(f) managing, selling and realizing any property which may come into the possession of the company in satisfaction or part satisfaction of any of its claims;
(g) acquiring and holding and generally dealing with any property or any right, title or interest in any such property which may form the security or part of the security for any loans or advances or which may be connected with any such security;
(h) undertaking and executing trusts;
(i) undertaking the administration of estates as executor, trustee or otherwise;
(j) establishing and supporting or aiding in the establishment and support of associations, institutions, funds, trusts, and conveniences calculated to benefit employees or ex-employees of the company or the dependents or connections of such persons; granting pension and allowances and making payments towards insurance; subscribing to or guaranteeing moneys for charitable or benevolent object or for any exhibition or for any public, general or useful object;
(k) the acquisition, construction, maintenance and alteration of any building or works necessary or convenient for the purpose of the company;
(l) selling, improving, managing, developing, exchanging, leasing, mortgaging, disposing of or turning into account or otherwise dealing with all or any part of the property and rights of the company;
(m) doing all such other things as are incidental or conducive to the promotion or advancement of the business of the company;
(o) any other form of business which the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify as a form of business in which it is lawful for a banking company to engage.
Licensing of banking companies
Before granting any license, the Reserve Bank may require to be satisfied by an inspection of the books of the company or the following conditions are fulfilled, namely:-
(a) that the company is or will be in a position to pay its present or future depositors in full as their claims accrue;
(b) that the affairs of the company are not being, or are not likely to be, conducted in a manner detrimental to the interests of its present or future depositors;
(c) that the general character of the proposed management of the company will not be prejudicial to the public interest of its present or future depositors;
(d) that the company has adequate capital structure and earning prospects;
(e) that the public interest will be served by the grant of a license to the company to carry on banking business in India;
(f) that having regard to the banking facilities available in the proposed principal area of operations of the company, the potential scope for expansion of banks already in existence in the area and other relevant factors the grant of the license would not be prejudicial to the operation and consolidation of the banking system consistent with monetary stability and economic growth;
(g) any other condition, the fulfillment of which would, in the opinion of the Reserve Bank, be necessary to ensure that the carrying on of banking business in India by the company will not be prejudicial to the public interest or the interests of the depositors.